# Beams and Frames: Analysis

The active study can be solved by pressing Solve from ribbon tab. If the solution succeeds the FEA results dialog opens. With the functions of dialog the visualization of results can be modified.

## Change the stress plot

• The presented stress plot can be changed from the Stress plot list of FEA results dialog.

• Descriptions of different stress plots are listed in the table below
Stress plotUnitDescription
Axial force NkNForce in the direction of beam axis
Torsion moment MTkNmForce about the direction of beam axis
Bending moment MYkNmBending moment about the first main direction of cross section
Bending moment MZkNmBending moment about the second main direction of cross section
Shear force QYkNShear force in the first main direction of cross section
Shear force QZkNShear force in the second main direction of cross section
Normal stressMPa

Normal stress in the direction of beam axis is calculated as follows:

• In Colored display in every point of cross section. Calculation is done with moment of inertia.
• In Diagram display by choosing the highest absolute value in cross section area. Calculation is done with section modulus.
Von Mises stressMPa

Von Mises stress is calculated from normal and shear stress components with following formula .

In the formula, σ is normal stress in the direction of beam axis and τ are shear stresses in the main directions of cross section.

Shear stresses are composed of

• Stresses caused by torsion. They are calculated with section modulus in torsion.
• Stresses caused by shearing deformation. They are calculated with shear areas.

Von Mises stress calculation is inaccurate because the distribution of shear stress in the cross section area is not precisely known. In most cases it gives a bit too high value.

Displacement DmmDisplacement resultant of beam neutral axis
Displacement DYmmDisplacement in the first main direction of cross section
Displacement DZmmDisplacement in the second main direction of cross section
TwistmradTwist of beam axis

## Visualize displacements

• The displacements of structure can be visualized by dragging Displacements slider.
• The displacements of structure is shown in 3d model.

Note!

The visualization of displacements is not shown in real scale. The displacements are shown exaggerated.

## Modify the visualization of results

### Change results display

• Results display can be selected as Colored or Diagram.
• The scale of diagrams can be modified by setting Scale factor.  ### Show support reactions

• Set Show support forces on. Support force components are shown on supported nodes in unit kN.
• The coordinate system for shown support force components can be selected as local coordinate system of node or global coordinate system of 3d model.  • Set Show support moments on. Support moment components are shown on supported nodes in unit kNm.
• The coordinate system for shown support moment components can be selected as local coordinate system of node or global coordinate system of 3d model.  ### Show connected nodes

• Set Show connected nodes on. The linked nodes and the main nodes of active study are shown. ### Hide profiles

• Set Hide profiles on when diagram results display is selected. The geometry of parts in active study is hidden.
• Nodes and neutral axes of parts are shown instead of geometry of parts. ### Rotate representation plane

• Rotate representation plane option is possible for stress plots which direction can not be expressed with the directions of cross section main directions. These stress plots are
• Axial force N
• Torsion moment MT
• Normal stress
• Von Mises stress
• Displacement D
• Twist
• When Rotate representation plane option is turned on and some of the stress plots above is selected, the representation plane of diagram is aligned with the first main direction of the cross section.

• By default the representation plane of diagram is aligned with the second main direction of the cross section.  • The global directions for shear forces QY, QZ and displacements DY, DZ can be seen from the vertical axis of diagram.
• The global directions of bending moments MY and MZ can be seen from the normal of representation plane.

### Save view

• The results view can be saved by pressing Save view. The background color can be changed to white if wanted.